The next hundred years

After Charles II died in 1686, he was followed by James II, who had returned to the catholic faith. Parliament objected to that and invited William III of Orange, who had married James' daughter Mary,>>> to take the throne.
When Mary died in 1694, William reigned on untill 1702. But as the couple died without having children, it was Mary's sister, Anne,>>> who took the throne.She reigned untill 1714.
When Anne died, she was followed by George I, the Elector of Hannover, being the first of many monarchs of the House of Hannover. He was follwed by George II in 1727. >>>
In 1716, George Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) died. He was seen as one of the brightest intellects of the 17th century. He served 40 years as a Privy Councelor at the court of Hannover, before George became King of England.
>>>In 1719, Daniel Defoe published the first real novel:" Robinson Crusoe".
In 1720, Sir Edmund Halley was appointed "Astronomer Royal" and he was proven right about the periodic return of the comet, that carries his name, in 1759.
It was also in these days, that the octant was invented, which greatly aided navigation and so did the telescope.>>>
In 1727, Sir Isaac Newton died. He was an English mathematician and physicist, born in 1643. Apart from the gravity laws, he was also the inventor of calculus. In 1675, Leibniz (mentioned above) arrived at that same method as well.
In 1732, Georgia, the last of the original American colonies, was settled by the British, under the personal supervision of James Edward Oglethorpe.
In 1740 Maria Teresa came on the Habsburg throne of Austria. As Austria had inherited the southern part of the Netherlands from Spain, this area now called Belgium, became the Austrian Netherlands.
Also in 1740, Maria Teresa's arch rival, Frederic the Great, of the house of Hohenzollern, became King of Prussia.
This was also the time of the great composers. Here we see Johan Sebastian Bach.
And here we see George Friedrich Händel (1685-1759) and Wolfgang Amedeus Mozart (1756-1791).
While Scotland had his great poet in Robert Burns,the Germans had theirs in Heinrich Heine.
Petrus Josef Triest was born in Brussels, Belgium, in 1780 and spent most of his time looking after the sick and elderly and the mentally impaired.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was a German Philosopher, who was considered the most influential thinker in Germany then.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) German poet,dramatist and novelist and according to an English critic: "the manifest center of German literature."
One of England's famous painters was Sir Joshua Reynolds,(1723-1792), who amongst many others painted this: "portrait of miss Rowles".
In 1760 George III became king of England.
The American colonies were becoming restless as England tried to impose a stamp tax on the colonies.In 1770, British troops, who were quartered in the city of Boston to discourage demonstrations, fired into a crowd, killing 5 people. This became known as the Boston Massacre.
---The Boston tea party---
Although most taxes were withdrawn by 1773, the duty on tea was retained.
A group of Boston citizens, disguised as Indians, boarded the tea ships and threw the cargo of tea overboard. When the government of Boston refused to pay for the tea, the British closed the Port of Boston. (Boston Port Act)
In 1774, the first Continental Congress of colonial delegates met in Philadelphia and elected John Hanson as first President.
The Congress decided to train Militia and collect powder and also train Minute men, who would be ready to fight on a minute's notice.

Patrick Henry, one of the Virginian Delegates held a famous speech, that ended with the words: "Give me Liberty or give me Death".

In April 1775, the British marched on Concord and Lexington to destroy the weapons and arms here collected and arrest the ringleaders, but Paul Revere rode ahead and forewarned everybody.
Then, after having partly destroyed the arms and powder dumps at Concord, the British fell in a trap at Lexington, set up by the colonists and fled back to Boston.
273 men were either killed or wounded.
In May 1775, the 2nd Continental Congress assumed Governmental powers, formed the Continental Army and appointed George Washington of Virginia, Commander in Chief.
On July 3, 1775 Washington took command of his troops for a war, that would last six years.
And the new American army marched to war.
One of the first battles, was the Battle of Bunker Hill, where the Americans were the first to occupy Breed's Hill and thus defeated the British. The British suffered 1500 killed or wounded, while the Americans had 500 casualties.
On the fourth of July 1767, the colonials issued their "Declaration of Independance" and up till today that date is America's National Holiday.
The three authors of the Declaration were Benjamin Franklin, of Pennsylvania; Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia and John Adams of Massachusetts.
One of the most encouraging events for the Americans was, how General Washington defeated the British at Trenton, after having crossed the Delaware on Christmas Eve 1776.
In January 1777, Washington defeated the British at Princeton.
In 1777, the American Flag, as designed by Betsy Ross, was accepted as the official American Flag.
In August 1777, a battle was fought near Oriskany NY, between British Loyalists and Mohawk Indians against the Americans under General Nicholas Herkimer. Herkimer was mortally wounded, but kept on directing the battle. The British were forced to retreat and this ruined their chances of a British victory at Saratoga.
In !777, John Paul Jones was instructed by Congress to raid the coastal towns of Britain.
In 1779, he was fighting a British frigate and when the British demanded his surrender, he replied: "I have not yet begun to fight". He then captured the frigate, just before his own ship sank.
On July 27 1777, Marquis de Lafayette, a French military leader, volunteered to serve without pay. Congress appoints him as a Major-General in the Continental Army. He was to become one of Washinton's most trusted aides.
Baron von Steuben from Prussia also offered his services to Congress and so did Count Casimir Pulaski from Poland. The latter was killed in 1779, during the siege of Savannah, Georgia, while in command of the French and American cavalry.
In December 1777, Washinton set up winterquarters at Valley Forge, where he was joined by Lafayette.
When the news of the American victory at Saratoga reached Europe, Benjamin Franklin was received at the French Royal Court and France recognised the United States as an Independent State.
By the end of September 1781, Washington's combined French and American army surrounded the strongly defended British position at Yorktown. On October 17,the British under Lord Cornwallis surrendered. Lord Cornwallis feigned illness, as he did not want to present his sword to a colonial and therefor send his second-in-command. Equally, Washington would not deal with a deputy and let the British surrender to Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, his second-in-command.
The victory at Yorktown, was the final major engagement of the revolutionary war.
On November 30, 1782, a prelimenary Peace Treaty was signed in Paris. Terms included recognition of American Independence, the bounderies of the United States and the withdrawal of all British forces.
On the American side, the Treaty was signed by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay
The Treaty was signed officially on September 3,1783 and provided for restoration of rights and property of Loyalists, but more than 7000 Loyalist had already sailed on April 26 1783, for Canada.
After the British lost the American colonies, they needed another place to transport their convicts to. So in 1787, Captain Arthur Phillip was commissioned to sail in his flagship "Sirius" and another 10 vessels and establish a penal colony in Australia.
After arrival, he found Botany Bay unsuitable and hoisted the British flag in what he called:"the finest harbour in the world",a little further north and on January 26, 1788, named the settlement "Sydney", after Lord Sydney (Secretary of State in the Home Office), who bore responsibility for finding a solution to the convict problem.
A couple of days later, there appeared two French ships, under Admiral La Perouse, on a voyage of discovery. After seeing that the British had already claimed the land, they disappeared south again.
In France, the population was getting restless. The country had an enormous debt, the lower classes were the only ones that paid tax, while the nobles and clergy did not contribute any tax at all. A new minister for finance, Anne Robert Turgot was appointed in 1774, but his cure for fixing the country's finances, was so unpopulair with the nobility, that they forced his resignation. Then in May 1789, the King was forced to call the States-General together.
Camille Desmoulins was an active propagandist and he addressed the crowd on July 12, 1789. He has been credited with sparking the revolution, for on July 14, 1789 the crowd stormed the Bastille.
Condorcet was a moderate liberal when the revolution broke out and he is mainly known for drawing up the plans for a State education.
Madame Roland was also a moderate liberal and when she finished up at the guillotine, her last famous words were: "Oh Liberty!! What crimes have been committed in thy name!!".
On August 4, 1789 the Feudal system was abolished; the Nobles and the Clergy lost their privileges and a start was made with the new Constition and the Declaration of Human Rights.
"Freedom, Equality and Brotherhood" became the revolutionary slogan.
On the right, we see the revolution remembered after 200 years and on the left, the 200th anniversary of the purchase of Corsica,(1768) which had far reaching consequences for France.
It was on Corsica, that Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769, which made him a French citizen. At the age of 9 he went to France for his education,later joined the Army and was 1st Consul by 1799, when he was 30 years of age.
The Marquis de Lafayette, having returned from the Independence War in America, took an active part in the French Revolution. He belonged to the political moderates and was an organiser and commander of the National Guard.
Rouget de Lisle, was a lowly Army officer, who wrote the words and music of "La Marseillaise" (the French National Anthem), in 1792, when he was stationed in Strasbourg. The original title was: "Chant de guerre de l'armée",(War song of the army)
Etienne Mehul made his name as a composer on the eve of the Revolution and later provided music for Napoleon.
Emperor Franz of Austria, who was the brother of the French Queen, Marie-Antoinette, urged the Royal couple to flee from France.
When they finally decided to do so, they were recognised close to the border (near Varennes) by Jean Drouet and forced to return to Paris.
While fighting the Austrians at the bridge of Arcole on November 15, 1796, the French soldiers hessitated to cross the bridge. Napoleon, however, seized the standard and charged onto the bridge. After this example, the soldiers picked up courage again, fought and defeated the Austrians. It was this type of leadership, that endeared Napoleon to his soldiers.
During his Egyptian campaign, the French fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Horatio Nelson in Aboukir Bay, which cut off Napoleon's supply lines.
It is said, that the soldiers of Napoleon used the Sphinx as target practice and that is why she lost her nose, but this is untrue, as there is evidence that the Sphinx was without her nose, before Napoleon arrived.
The Rosetta stone, however, was dug up by French soldiers and this enabled Jean Champollion to decypher the Hieroglyphics in 1822.
Another famous person of those days was Tadeusz Kosciuszko, a Polish Army officer, who had volunteered in the American Colonial army. When he came back, he fought against Russia untill he lost the battle at Maciejowice and was taken prisoner. He was released in 1796 and died in Switzerland in 1817.
Napoleon had been planning for an Empire, for being first Consul, was not enough for him. On the right, we see Napoleon making preparatoions for the ceremony, while on the left we see him taking the Crown from the Pope and crowning himself.

This brings us to the end of the 18th century and for 9 years after his coronation, Napoleon carried on waging war. He said:" Conquest has made me what I am, and only conquest can maintain me"


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