As the Middle Ages finished with the discovery of America in 1492, we will see what happened to the world after that.
|Although Leif Erikson, the Viking, landed in North America long before Columbus did, it is generally accepted, that it was Columbus, who discovered America.|
|Columbus approached Queen Isobella of Spain for finance and she allowed him to fit out three ships: the Santa Maria, the Nina and the Pinta|
|He set out on August 3,1492, from Palos, Spain and after a brief stop over at the Canary Islands for repairs of Pinta's rudder, he set foot on land on October 12, 1492 and after a service of thanksgiving, claimed the land for Spain and called it San Salvador.|
|After that many conquistadores arrived in the Americas. Ponce de Leon explored Florida and Cabeza de Vaca explored also parts of South America, besides Florida.|
| The United States and Spain commemorated this event by issuing an identical stamp.|
|The island of Hispaniola was the first Spanish colony. Ponce de Leon went from there to conquer Puerto Rico. The sentrybox on castle Del Morro still reminds us of those days.|
|Francisco Pizarro came to Peru in 1531 in search of gold. He kidnapped the Inca Emperor, took the gold offered for his freedom and murdered Atohualpa, just the same.|
|Diego de Almagro partnered with Pizarro. Halfway the expedition was recalled, but Pizarro and 13 of his men refused to return. As greed was the motivation of the Conquistadores, it was a violent society. Almagro was killed by Pizarro's men and Pizarro later by Almagro's supporters |
|Pedro de Heredia had permission to explore and possess the greater part of Columbia. Was later accused of misappropiating the Crown's share, send to Spain in disgrace and drowned on the way.|
Sebastian de Balalcazar also explored Columbia and Equador and captured Quito, the present capital of Equador.
|Antonio de Mendoza was the first civilian Vice-Roy of New Spain.He arranged for expeditions to the north, as far as Kansas and dispatched Juan Rodriguez Gabrillo on a expedition to California.|
|Francisco de Toledo set up a government system in Peru, that ruled through a local government, dealing directly with the Indians and which lasted for almost 200 years.|
Alonzo de Hojeda is given credit for discovering Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela.
|Francisco de Orellana was ordered to sail the Napo river and down the Amazon to find supplies for the Gonzallo Pizarro expedition. He encountered a hostile tribe, where the native women fought alongside their men and therefor named the river the "Amazon".|
|One of the Pinzon brothers, who sailed with Columbus, discovered Brazil, but did not claim it for Spain.|
The Portuguese, who claimed it, named it "Terra de Vera Cruz" (Land of the True Cross), but later, when a ship arrived in Portugal with a cargo of Brazilwood, the name was changed to Brazil.
|Spain's only rival at that time, was Portugal. She had, under Henry the Navigator, already established a colonial empire. In 1493, Pope Alexander VI, promulgated, that all newly found land west of an imaginary line, (370 leagues west of the Azores) belonged to Spain, while any land found east, belonged to Portugal.|
|The Portuguese colonies stretched from the Azores in the Atlantic, via West and East Africa to the Indies in Asia. |
|In 1516, Charles I became the new king of Spain, while in 1519, he became Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and reigned over a bigger territory than Charlemagne. He needed the gold that came from the America's, to fight wars against the French and the Turks and stop the Reformation.|
|The Reformation started in 1521, when Luther was put in the Ban, at Worms. He later translated the bible into the German language.|
Another famous reformer was the Frenchman Jean Calvin.
| In England reigned Henry VIII, who had also moved away from the Roman Catholic Church.|
He was followed up by his daughter, Queen Elisabeth.
|In the north, the countries of Norway, Sweden and Denmark had been united under Danish rule, by the treaty of Kalmar, which was signed at Kalmar Castle in 1397.|
|Gustav Vasa led the revolt against the Danes in 1523, made the country independent and the State religion, Lutheran.|
In 1541, he was shown the first Lutheran Bible in the Swedish language.
|Trade and industry started to take off in Europe in the 15th century. The Venetian trade route went to Leipzig in south Germany and then through to Lubeck and the Hansa cities on the Baltic.|
|In 1588, the Spanish Armada was seen on the horizon and Admiral Drake finished his game of golf, before he sailed for battle. (The reason was, that the tide had to change, before he could sail out.)|
The next 100 years brought many changes to the world
|In 1605, Australia, which until then had been occupied by aboriginals and kangaroos, was visited by Willem Jansz, who in the "Duyfken", accidentally charted 300 miles of Australia's coastline, believing it to be the coast of New Guinea.|
His signature can be seen on the stamp with the globe.
|In 1616, Captain Dirk Hartog and his fellow Dutchmen, aboard the "Eendracht", became the first known Europeans that have landed on the West coast of Australia. He left a plague with his particulars, which was replaced with another, eighty years later, by Willem de Vlamingh, who added his story to it.|
|Abel Tasman, with the "Zeehaan" and the "Heemskerck" arrived at Tasmania 1n 1642 and named it "van Diemensland" after the Governor-General of Batavia.|
The ships then sailed on to New Zealand, before returning to Batavia (now called Djakarta) via Tonga and Fiji.
|Although John Cabot landed at Newfoundland in 1493, while he was commissioned by Henry VII of England, it was Jacques Cartier, a French navigator, who in 1534 sailed up the Lawrence river and named the site of Montreal.|
|Samuel de Champlain, here seen with Cartier, founded in 1608 Quebec, which was to become the capital of "New France". It was slow growing however. In 1635 Quebec had 150 settlers, grown from 20 in 1620.|
On the other side, we see Jeanne Mance, the first secular nurse in Canada, who founded the first hospital there and called it "Hotel Dieu Hospital".
|Although we have heard, that there were many Indians in the Wild West, there were plenty of Indians in the Wild North as well.|
|Adam Dollard fought the battle of Long Sault in 1660, where 17 Canadians and 4 friendly Indians, held off 800 Iroquois Indians for 7 days to save Montreal for France.|
On the other side we see, Francois Xavier de Montmorency Laval de Montigny , who was the first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, with a very complicated name.He was sent to Quebec in 1659, founded Laval University and opposed the liquor trading with the Indians.
|The "Nonsuch" left England on June 3, 1668 and arrived in Canada in September. They sailed up the Lawrence river, made friends with the natives, overwintered and returned to England in the following Spring with a cargo of furs. This did encourage the fur trade with the New World.|
|Jean Marquette was a Jesuit priest and the first French explorer down the Mississippi in 1673.|
This would finally lead to the French occupation of Louisiana.
|Bartholomew Diaz, Portuguese navigator, rounded the southern point of Africa in 1488 and named it "Cabo Tormentoso" or "Cape of Storms". Jan van Riebeek and his "Dromedaris" landed in 1653 and started a colony to grow supplies for ships of the Dutch East India company, called it Cape Town and renamed the Cape, the Cape of Good Hope.|
|Henry Hudson was an English navigator, who was in service of the Dutch East India company, when in 1609, he sailed 240 km up the Hudson river and thus gave the Dutch a claim to this area. On his following voyage, he was caught in ice and had to spend the winter in terrible conditions. His crew mutinied in the Spring of 1611, set Hudson and 8 compagnions adrift in a small boat and they were never heard or seen again.|
|In 1626 Peter Minuit purchased Manhattan Island, where the Dutch had a trading post called "New Amsterdam", from the Indians. He paid the sum of 60 guilders. The place was seized by the English in 1664 and the settlement was renamed "New York"|
The first Dutch Governor was Pieter Stuyvesant, who soon formed the firebrigade there.
|By 1650, Sweden was such a great power, that the Baltic Sea was virtually a Swedish lake. In 1637, Swedish and Dutch stockholders formed the "New Sweden Company", to trade for furs and tobacco in the New World.The ships that set sail were the "Kalmar Nyckel" and the "Fogel Grip", under command of Peter Minuit.|
|The partnership broke up in 1655 and the Dutch gained control of New Sweden.Later in 1664 they lost it to the English. Later still, it became part of the colony of Delaware.|
|Many people were driven out of Europe by religious persecutions.In Paris, there were over 8000 Hugonots (French Calvinists) murdered in the St. Bartholemew Massacre in 1572. There were no persecutions between 1598 (Edict of Nantes) and 1610, (In 1610 their protector, Henry IV, was murdered.) but then it started again and many Hugonots fled the country. Those from the southern part of Belgium, were called Walloons.Many arrived in Amarica in 1624.|
|The Hugonot's cross was worn as confirmation of the wearer's faith.|
In 1692 over 200 French Hugonots settled in South Africa, where the Dutch Reformed church had been established, since 1665.
|After the 30 year war ended in Germany, baptists and small sects were not allowed to practice their religion. Therefor in 1683 a group of Germans, led by Franz Daniel Pastorius, arrived on the "Concord" and established Germantown in Philadelphia.|
|The Pilgrim Fathers on the "Mayflower" had a simular reason to come to America. In England, they were called "Puritans", because they classed the Anglican church, a Roman Catholic church, without a Pope.And therefor not really reformed.|
| In 1633, Charles I granted a charter to Lord Baltimore, to establish a colony in Maryland.The first group of settlers left on the "Ark" and the "Dove", led by Leonard Calvert, on November 22, 1633 and arrived safely in Maryland on March 25, 1634.|
|In 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh tried to establish a colony in Virginia, called Roanoke. In 1590, when a long awaited supply ship arrived, they found that the colony had disappeared without a trace. Since then they have been called "the lost colony".|
|Although the colony had disappeared, evidence was found that on August 18, 1587, the first baby of English parents was born in America. Her name was Virginia Dare.|
|It was in Jamestown, Virginia, where in 1619 the first 20 slaves were landed in North America. It started a period of slavery in the USA, that lasted until President Abraham Lincoln abolished it in 1863 and it took a civil war to do it.|
|In England, in 1642, Charles I raised an army of his own and took on the forces of Parliament at Nottingham. This was the start of the civil war, which would result in the beheading of Charles in 1649 and end in 1651. Two years after the death of Cromwell in 1658, the monarchy was restored with Charles II as King.|
|Charles II, as reward for their support, granted 8 Noblemen in 1663, the territory of Carolina (which is now North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.) for the yearly rent of "20 marks of lawful money of England".|
|On the continent of Europe, the thirty year war was raging between the catholic and the protestant forces. King Christan IV, of Denmark and King Gustav II Adolphus of Sweden, fought on the protestant side.|
|Gustav II Adolphus was killed at the battle of Lüdzen in 1632 and Jan von Werth was a cavalry commander in the service of the Habsburgers.|
|And the Dutch navy was still fighting the Spanish navy, since 1568.|
|Then finally after 30 years fighting between catholics and protestants and 80 years between Holland and Spain, 1648 brought the peace of Westphalia. Holland gained its independence and protestants and catholics could exist next to each other.|
|We see Sweden as a great organised nation. In 1661, the Royal library was established, while in 1663, doctors were to be registered, in what later became the "Board of Health".|
|Sweden's nearest rival was Poland. Poland had been united under King Mieszko in the 980's and had during that dynastie, which ended with King Kazimierz Wielki in 1370, grown into a great power.|
| In 1474, Copernicus, one of the world's greatest astronomers ever, who would discover that the sun and not the earth, is the center of our universe, was born in Poland.|
|In 1683, Polish and German forces, under the Polish command of John III Sobieski, defeated the Turks before Vienna, thus saving Christianity in Central Europe.|
|The 16th and 17th century in Europe, also produced some very gifted people, such as Gerardus Mercator, who was the leading map maker in Europe. Mercator was born in Flanders, in 1512 and died in Germany in 1594. The "Mercator's projection" (to put global lines on a flat surface), was first used in 1569 for a wall map of the world on 18 seperate sheets.|
|A very popular man was Nicolas Rockox, born in 1560 and who was Burgomaster of Antwerp from 1603 till his death in 1640. He was considered humane and philantropic and is drawn here by Anthony van Dyck. Van Dyck also painted this painting of Fillippo Cattaneo. |
|Another famous son of Antwerp, although he was born in Germany of Flemish parents in 1577, was Peter Paul Rubens, who later settled in Antwerp. A famous painting of his, is shown here: "Landscape with rainbow".|
|And then there was Rembrand Harmensz van Rijn of course, who was born in Leiden (Holland) in 1606 and died in Amsterdam in 1669. A famous painting of his, is here: "An anatomy lesson of Dr Tulp"|
|Spain had Velasquez(1599-1660), who painted many religious scenes. Here we show: "the Adoration of the Magi", which was painted in 1619. |
|Apart from painters, there were great architects. In England, Christopher Wren (1632-1723) created Paul's Cathedral after the fire of London in 1666. In Germany, there was Balthasar Neumann (1687-1723), who designed a beautiful interior for the Palace in Wurzburg.|
|There was Johan Amos Comenius, who was born in Moravia in 1592 and died in Amsterdam in 1670. He was considered the top educational philosopher, who strived for the recognition of the need, of human education. |
|In Holland there was Dr Herman Boerhave (1668-1738), who has a medical museum named after him. Germany had Dr Eisenbarth (1663-1727), who was,in curing patients, ahead of his time. His less successful colleagues, out of jealousy, created a mockery song.|
|On the other side of the world, the subcontinent of India was divided in many states. In the North was the Mughal Empire, who were of the Islamic religion, but practised religious tolerance.|
|It was during the height of the Mughal reign, that the architecture left its mark. Shah Jahan build the Taj Mahal in Agra, in memory of his beloved wife in 1650, while in Delhi, Akbar (Great Mughal ruler 1542-1605) had "The Red Fort" built.|
|Sjivahi, in 1674, created the first Marathi military confederacy against the Mughals, while Tulsidas, the author of Ramayane, was a great writer.|
|India was a very complex society. There were many religions such as Muslem and Hindu, and also Christian and Jewish.|
|The Sikh religion,(a blend of Muslem and Hindu) was founded by Nanak (1469-1539), whose followers built the Golden Temple in Amritsar.|
Later Ramsit Sing, during the decline of the Mughal Empire, created a powerful state in the Punjab.
|Buddishm is areligion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, who sat under the Bodi tree and found enlightment.|
On the right the Bodi tree and on the left the Banchi Stupa. (A Stupa is a sacred building that houses a Buddhist relic.
|Buddhism originated in India, but spread to many countries in the region. And although there are differences in the dogma, it can be found in Hong Kong and Korea.|
|It took on very well in Thailand, where we see a sitting statue of Buddha on one side and a standing one on the other.|
|Japan also embraced Buddhism, next to their Shinto belief. |
|Burma hosted the 5th and 6th Buddhist Council. On the left are the marble slab inscriptions of the 5th, while the other shows the Kaba-Aye Pagoda, where the 6th was held.|
|In Laos we see the bringing of offerings to the Buddhist monks, during the That Luang religious festival.|
The next century sees the transfer of power to the people, in Europe and in America